Polycystic Ovary Disease ( PCOD )
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is also called as Polycystic Ovary Disease (PCOD). It is a hormonal disorder commonly found in women of reproductive age.
Women with PCOS have irregular menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. Many women are suffering from PCOS but they don’t know about it. The word “polycystic” means many cysts. In PCOS disease, ovaries develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs. These eggs are immature to trigger ovulation. The lack of ovulation affects levels of estrogen, progesterone, FSH and LH hormones. Due to the PCOS, Estrogen and progesterone levels are lower than usual while androgen levels are higher in women. This extra male hormone disrupts the menstrual cycle so that women with PCOS get fewer periods than usual.
Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni is a well experienced, skillful Diabetologist and Endocrinologist in Andheri, Mumbai. He is an expert in the treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) disorder. Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni is one of the most proficient hormonal diseases specialist doctor in Andheri, Mumbai.
Symptoms of (Polycystic Ovary Disease) PCOD
Signs and symptoms of PCOD often develop around the time of the first menstrual period during puberty.
The most common PCOD symptoms are:
- Irregular periods.
A lack of ovulation prevents the uterine lining from shedding every month. Some women with PCOS get fewer than eight periods a year.
- Heavy bleeding.
The uterine lining builds up for a longer period of time hence women can experience heavier bleeding than normal.
- Hair growth
More than 70 percent of women with PCOS grow hair on their face and body including on their back, belly and chest. Excess hair growth is called hirsutism.
Excess male hormones make the skin oilier than usual and cause breakouts on areas like the face, chest and upper back.
- Weight gain
Most of the women with PCOS are overweight or obese.
- Male-pattern baldness
Hair on the scalp becomes thinner and fall out.
- Darkening of the skin
Dark patches of skin are formed in body creases like those on the neck, in the groin and under the breasts.
Hormone changes can cause headaches in some women.
Causes of (Polycystic Ovary Disease) PCOD
The exact cause of PCOD is still unknown. Various factors causing PCOD include:
- Excess Insulin
Excess insulin increases the androgen production causing difficulty with ovulation. Up to 70 percent of women with PCOS have insulin resistance hence their cells can’t use insulin properly.
- Low Grade Inflammation
Women with PCOS have higher levels of inflammation in body. Obesity also increases inflammation. Low-grade inflammation stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce more androgens which can lead to heart and blood vessel problems.
As per the research, certain genes are responsible for PCOD.
Complications of (Polycystic Ovary Disease) PCOD
If PCOD is not treated on time then it can create various complications in the future including:
- Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure
- Miscarriage or Premature Birth
- Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
- Metabolic Syndrome
- Type 2 diabetes
- Sleep Apnea
- Depression, Anxiety and Eating Disorders
- Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
- Endometrial Cancer
Diagnosis of (Polycystic Ovary Disease) PCOD
Common diagnosis methods include
- A Pelvic Exam
Pelvic Exam is used to check for any problems with ovaries or other parts of reproductive tract.
- Blood test
Blood test is used to check level of male hormone, cholesterol, insulin and other factors.
- Ultrasound testing
An ultrasound uses sound waves to look for abnormal follicles and other problems with ovaries and uterus.
Treatment of (Polycystic Ovary Disease) PCOD
- Lifestyle changes
PCOD treatment usually starts with lifestyle changes like weight loss, diet and exercise. Low-carbohydrate diets are effective for both weight loss and lowering insulin levels. Doctor advises patients for weight loss exercises and eating healthy diet. Proper weight improves ovulation and insulin levels.
Birth control pills and other medicines are very helpful to regulate menstrual cycle and to treat PCOD symptoms like hair growth and acne. Birth control pills contain estrogen and progestin which decrease the estrogen and restore a normal hormone balance, regulate ovulation, relieve symptoms like excess hair growth and protect against endometrial cancer.
Surgery is the final option to improve fertility if other treatments are failed to relive. Ovarian drilling is a procedure that makes tiny holes in the ovary with a laser or thin heated needle to restore normal ovulation.
Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni is a well known Diabetologist and Endocrinologist in Andheri, Mumbai. He is a specialist in the Hormonal imbalance diseases. Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni’s Glands Clinic in Andheri, Mumbai is a well equipped with advanced medical techniques to provide all types of treatments to PCOD (Polycystic Ovary Disease). Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni has a comprehensive knowledge of hormonal imbalance diseases. He has a good experience about procedures involved in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes as well as other Hormonal diseases.