Calcium Disorder

Human body needs various minerals for the proper functioning. Calcium is one of the most essential mineral for life. It is best known for its important role in bone health and protection from osteoporosis. Calcium also plays a vital role as a messenger in cell-signaling pathways throughout the body and is necessary for normal cell function, transmission of nerve signals, secretion of hormones, blood coagulation, muscle contraction and muscle relaxation.

Dr. Sudhindra Kulkarni is a well experienced, highly qualified and skillful Diabetologist and Endocrinologist in Andheri, Mumbai. He is an expert in the treatment of endocrine diseases. Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni is also one of the most proficient Diabetes specialist doctor in Andheri, Mumbai.

Calcium regulation is primarily controlled by Parathyroid Hormone (PTH), vitamin D and Calcitonin. Calcium disorder occurs when the body has too little or too much Calcium. A calcium disorder has two major types such as:

  • Hypercalcemia
  • Hypocalcemia

Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia occurs when the body has too much level of Calcium in the bloodstream. The main cause of Hypercalcemia is a hyperparathyroidism. Hypercalcemia is not preventable but early detection is very helpful to normalize the calcium level.

Symptoms of Hypercalcemia

Mild Hypercalcemia does not show any specific signs or symptoms but In general, the symptoms increase with higher levels of calcium in the blood. Common symptoms include:

  • Gastrointestinal Conditions: Gastrointestinal conditions include Nausea, Constipation, Abdominal pain, Decrease in appetite and Peptic ulcer disease.
  • Kidney Related Conditions: It includes kidney stone, frequent urination and flank pain.
  • Psychological Conditions: Psychological conditions include Depression, Confusion, Memory Loss and Dementia.
  • Bone Related Problems: Various bone problems include bone pain, bone fracture, bone aches and spine curving. 

Causes of Hypercalcemia

Major causes of Hypercalcemia include:

  • One of the most common causes of high calcium level is the overproduction of parathyroid hormone or hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is more common in women over 50.
  • Cancers especially lung cancer, breast cancer and blood cancer.
  • Immobilization over a long period of time.
  • Kidney diseases
  • Use of certain medications which increase parathyroid hormone
  • Genetic disorder known as familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia.
  • Excessive amounts of calcium or vitamin D supplements.
  • Certain diseases such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis which can raise blood levels of vitamin D

Diagnosis of Hypercalcemia

Early diagnosis is very crucial to make normal level of calcium in the body. Various diagnosis methods include:

  • Blood test
  • Urine test
  • Imaging tests such as CT scan, MRI scan and X rays
  • Physical test
  • Psychological test

Complications of Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia can cause severe complications it not treated on time such as:

  • Osteoporosis
  • Kidney stone
  • Kidney failure
  • Long lasting nervous system problems
  • Abnormal heart rates

Treatment of Hypercalcemia

Treatment is depending on the severity of Hypercalcemia. Major treatment options include:

  • Medications

If Hypercalcemia is mild, then doctor recommends medicines, drugs and supplements to control proper calcium level in the body.

  • Surgery

If Hypercalcemia is causing serious symptoms due to the overactive parathyroid glands then doctor performs surgery to remove the tissue which is causing the problem.

Hypocalcemia

Hypocalcemia occurs due to the lower than average levels of calcium in the blood. The normal calcium value in adult is 4.5-5.5 mEq/L.  Hypecalcemia is rarely a life threatening and in many cases it cure with the proper treatment.

Symptoms of Hypocalcemia

Hypocalcemia symptoms are depending on the severity of disease. Common symptoms include:

  • Muscle stiffness
  • Muscle spasms
  • Changes in mood, such as anxiety, depression or irritability
  • Memory issues
  • Hypotension
  • Difficulty in speaking or swallowing.
  • Fatigue
  • Parkinsonism
  • Papilledema or swelling of the optic disc.

The symptoms of severe Hypocalcemia are:

  • Seizures
  • Arrhythmias
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Laryngospasms or seizures of the voice box.

The long-term symptoms of Hypocalcemia include:

  • Dry skin
  • Brittle nails
  • Kidney stones or other calcium deposits in the body
  • Dementia
  • Cataracts
  • Eczema

Causes of Hypocalcemia

The most common cause of Hypocalcemia is hypoparathyroidism which occurs when the body secretes a less-than-average amount of Parathyroid Hormone (PTH). Low PTH levels lead to low calcium levels in body.

Other causes of Hypocalcemia include:

  • Less Calcium and Vitamin D in diet
  • Infections
  • Medications,
  • Stress
  • Anxiety
  • Intense exercise
  • Irregular magnesium or phosphate levels
  • Kidney disease
  • Diarrhea, constipation or other intestinal disorders that prevent body from absorbing calcium properly
  • A phosphate or calcium infusion
  • Cancer
  • Diabetic mother

Diagnosis of Hyporcalcemia

Early diagnosis is very crucial to make normal level of calcium in the body. Various diagnosis methods include:

  • Blood test
  • Urine test
  • Physical examination
  • Psychological tests

Treatment of Hypocalcemia

  • Medications

Many Hypocalcemia patients are easily treated with a dietary change. Calcium level is increased by taking calcium supplements, medicines and vitamin D or eating calcium rich foods.

  • Home care

Hypocalcemia patient should spend time in the sun for vitamin D. The amount of vitamin D needed is different for everyone.

Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni is a well known Diabetologist and Endocrinologist in Andheri, Mumbai. He is a specialist in the Hormonal imbalance diseases. Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni’s Glands Clinic in Andheri, Mumbai is a well equipped with advanced medical techniques to provide all types of treatments to diabetes and other Hormonal diseases. Dr Sudhindra Kulkarni has a comprehensive knowledge of hormonal imbalance diseases. He has a good experience about procedures involved in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes as well as other Hormonal diseases.

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